Description
The conference will consist of two segments. The first (21-24 March) will be devoted to a review of the status and main issues of the CORDEX initiative over the various CORDEX domains. Special sessions will be devoted to the Africa domain and to the assessment of the first multi-model CORDEX simulations over this region. This first segment of the conference will include invited and contributed papers and will entail a strong communication between the climate modeling and impact communities. The second segment (25-26 March) will include targeted skill building training sessions along with a specific Africa regional analysis design activity. This second segment will be mostly composed of theoretical lectures and hand-on laboratory sessions.
Go to day
  • Monday, 21 March 2011
    • 08:15 - 09:00 Registration / Administrative Formalities
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 08:15 Registration / Administrative Formalities 45'
    • 09:00 - 09:20 WELCOME
      • 09:00 WELCOME 20'
        Speaker:
    • 09:20 - 09:50 The CORDEX program, background, objectives, status
      • 09:20 The CORDEX program, background, objectives, status 30'
        Speaker: Filippo Giorgi (ICTP, Trieste, Italy)
        Material: slides
    • 09:50 - 10:10 CORDEX and WCRP
      • 09:50 CORDEX and WCRP 20'
        Speaker: Ghassem Asrar (WCRP-WMO, Geneva, Switzerland)
        Material: slides
    • 10:10 - 10:30 CORDEX and START
      • 10:10 CORDEX and START 20'
        Speaker: Hassan Virji (START, Washington D.C., USA)
    • 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 10:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 11:00 - 11:30 CORDEX in the IPCC WGI perspective
      • 11:00 CORDEX in the IPCC WGI perspective 30'
        Speaker: Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen (DMI, Copenhagen, Denmark)
        Material: slides
    • 11:30 - 12:00 CORDEX in the IPCC WGII perspective
      • 11:30 CORDEX in the IPCC WGII perspective 30'
        Speaker: Bruce Hewitson (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
        Material: slides
    • 12:00 - 12:30 Assessment and selection of members from global model ensembles projections for downscaling
      • 12:00 Assessment and selection of members from global model ensembles projections for downscaling 30'
        Speaker: Richard Jones (Met Office Hadley Center, Reading, UK)
    • 12:30 - 14:00 Lunch Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Cafeteria
      • 12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'
    • 14:00 - 14:30 How can CORDEX enhance assessments of climate change impacts and adaptation?
      • 14:00 How can CORDEX enhance assessments of climate change impacts and adaptation? 30'
        Speaker: Tim Carter (SYKE, Helsinki, Finland)
        Material: slides
    • 14:30 - 14:45 Mind the gap ? Communication between climate modelers and climate impact researchers in several projects in Hesse, Germany
      • 14:30 Mind the gap ? Communication between climate modelers and climate impact researchers in several projects in Hesse, Germany 15'
        Speaker: Heike Huebener (Hessian Agency for Environment and Geology, Wiesbaden, Germany)
        Material: slides
    • 14:45 - 15:00 Climate data requirements for agricultural modelling in CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security)
      • 14:45 Climate data requirements for agricultural modelling in CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security) 15'
        Speaker: Ann-Kristin Koehler (University of Leeds, UK)
        Material: slides
    • 15:00 - 15:30 Comparison of Downscaling Methods for Stakeholder-Driven Research in the Urban Northeast U.S.
      • 15:00 Comparison of Downscaling Methods for Stakeholder-Driven Research in the Urban Northeast U.S. 30'
        Speaker: Radley Horton (Columbia University, New York, USA)
        Material: slides
    • 15:30 - 16:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 15:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 16:00 - 16:30 Mapping future disease risk: integrating RCMs and dynamic disease models
      • 16:00 Mapping future disease risk: integrating RCMs and dynamic disease models 30'
        Speaker: Andrew Morse (University of Liverpool, UK)
    • 16:30 - 16:45 WETTREG - a method to produce regional climate change scenarios correlated in space and time
      • 16:30 WETTREG - a method to produce regional climate change scenarios correlated in space and time 15'
        Speaker: Frank Kreienkamp (Climate & Environment Consulting GmbH, Potsdam, Germany)
    • 16:45 - 17:15 A new global set of downscaled temperature scenarios
      • 16:45 A new global set of downscaled temperature scenarios 30'
        Speaker: Rasmus Benestad (The Norwegian Met. Institute, Oslo, Norway)
        Material: slides
    • 17:15 - 18:00 Panel Discussion: How to optimize CORDEX output for use in impact/adaptation studies
      • 17:15 Panel Discussion: How to optimize CORDEX output for use in impact/adaptation studies 45'
    • 18:00 - 19:00 IPCC Chapter 21 Meeting
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Oppenheimer Meeting Room
      • 18:00 IPCC Chapter 21 Meeting 1h0'
  • Tuesday, 22 March 2011
    • 09:00 - 09:30 Development of RegCM4 and tests over multiple CORDEX domains
      • 09:00 Development of RegCM4 and tests over multiple CORDEX domains 30'
        Speaker: Erika Coppola / Filippo Giorgi (ICTP, Trieste, Italy)
        Material: slides
    • 09:30 - 10:00 Metrics for CORDEX evaluation
      • 09:30 Metrics for CORDEX evaluation 30'
        Speaker: William Gutowski (Iowa State University, Ames, USA)
        Material: slides
    • 10:00 - 10:30 Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES)
      • 10:00 Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) 30'
        Speaker: Duane Waliser (CALTECH, Pasadena, USA)
    • 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 10:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 11:00 - 11:30 The CORDEX database
      • 11:00 The CORDEX database 30'
        Speaker: Ole Bøssing Christensen (DMI, Copenhagen, Denmark)
        Material: slides
    • 11:30 - 12:30 Discussion: CORDEX output, file structures, formatting, storage, analysis, observations etc
      • 11:30 Discussion: CORDEX output, file structures, formatting, storage, analysis, observations etc 1h0'
        Speaker: O.B. Christensen, W. Gutowski and G. Nikulin (DMI, Iowa State Un., SMHI)
    • 12:30 - 14:00 Lunch Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Cafeteria
      • 12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'
    • 14:00 - 14:30 EURO-CORDEX
      • 14:00 EURO-CORDEX 30'
        Speaker: Andreas Gobiet (Climate Service Centre, Hamburg, Germany)
        Material: slides
    • 14:30 - 14:45 Evaluation of CCLM simulations for CORDEX-Europe
      • 14:30 Evaluation of CCLM simulations for CORDEX-Europe 15'
        Speaker: Klaus Keuler (Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany)
        Material: slides
    • 14:45 - 15:00 An alternative to spectral nudging: A test case over the European CORDEX domain
      • 14:45 An alternative to spectral nudging: A test case over the European CORDEX domain 15'
        Speaker: Philippe Lucas-Picher (DMI, Copenhagen, Denmark)
        Material: slides
    • 15:00 - 15:15 Hot spots of vegetation-climate feedbacks under future greenhouse forcing in Europe
      • 15:00 Hot spots of vegetation-climate feedbacks under future greenhouse forcing in Europe 15'
        Speaker: Anna Wramneby (Lund University, Sweden)
    • 15:15 - 15:30 An assessment of precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula: WRF-Cordex regional simulations for a wet and dry year
      • 15:15 An assessment of precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula: WRF-Cordex regional simulations for a wet and dry year 15'
        Speaker: Rita Cardoso (University of Lisbon, Portugal)
    • 15:30 - 16:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 15:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 16:00 - 16:30 MED-CORDEX
      • 16:00 MED-CORDEX 30'
        Speaker: Paolo Ruti (ENEA, Rome, Italy)
        Material: slides
    • 16:30 - 16:45 Med-CORDEX: analysis of the Mediterranean water budget variability regarding the effects of nudging, surface parametrization and horizontal resolution
      • 16:30 Med-CORDEX: analysis of the Mediterranean water budget variability regarding the effects of nudging, surface parametrization and horizontal resolution 15'
        Speaker: Hiba Omrani (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France)
    • 16:45 - 17:00 Coordinated regional climate downscaling using WRF: A contribution to the CORDEX initiative by the Spanish WRF community (CORWES)
      • 16:45 Coordinated regional climate downscaling using WRF: A contribution to the CORDEX initiative by the Spanish WRF community (CORWES) 15'
        Speaker: Jesus Fernández (Universidad de Cantabria, Spain)
        Material: slides
    • 17:00 - 17:15 Extending the ENSEMBLES Data Access Portal for User-Friendly CORDEX Postprocessing
      • 17:00 Extending the ENSEMBLES Data Access Portal for User-Friendly CORDEX Postprocessing 15'
        Speaker: Jose Gutierrez (University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain)
    • 17:15 - 17:30 From raw model output to probabilistic climate projections Lessons learnt from a Bayesian analysis of regional climate projections in the Alps
      • 17:15 From raw model output to probabilistic climate projections Lessons learnt from a Bayesian analysis of regional climate projections in the Alps 15'
        Speaker: Andreas Weigel (MeteoSwiss, Zurich, Switzerland)
        Material: slides
    • 17:30 - 18:15 Discussion: CMIP5 GCM boundary data: Data conversion, storage, access, timing
      • 17:30 Discussion: CMIP5 GCM boundary data: Data conversion, storage, access, timing 45'
    • 19:00 - 21:30 RECEPTION
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Cafeteria
      • 19:00 RECEPTION 2h30'
  • Wednesday, 23 March 2011
    • 09:00 - 09:15 Evaluation of the regional climate model REMO over several CORDEX domains throughout the globe
      • 09:00 Evaluation of the regional climate model REMO over several CORDEX domains throughout the globe 15'
        Speaker: Andreas Haensler (Climate Service Centre, Hamburg, Germany)
    • 09:15 - 09:30 CORDEX Arctic simulations: Initial results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 09:15 CORDEX Arctic simulations: Initial results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model 15'
        Speaker: John Cassano (University of Boulder, Boulder, USA)
        Material: slides
    • 09:30 - 10:00 NARCCAP The North American Climate Change Assessment Program: Some applications of results.   
      • 09:30 NARCCAP The North American Climate Change Assessment Program: Some applications of results.    30'
        Speaker: Linda Mearns (NCAR, Boulder, USA)
    • 10:00 - 10:15 Preliminary results from RegCM3 simulations over the CORDEX Central America domain
      • 10:00 Preliminary results from RegCM3 simulations over the CORDEX Central America domain 15'
        Speaker: Raymond Aritt (Iowa State University, Ames, USA)
    • 10:15 - 10:30 Sensitivity of diurnal and seasonal precipitation to land surface and prognostic SST schemes in RegCM4 over central America
      • 10:15 Sensitivity of diurnal and seasonal precipitation to land surface and prognostic SST schemes in RegCM4 over central America 15'
        Speaker: Gulilat Tefera Diro (ICTP, Trieste, Italy)
        Material: slides
    • 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 10:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 11:00 - 11:30 CORDEX over South America: Assessment of multi-model simulations driven by
      • 11:00 CORDEX over South America: Assessment of multi-model simulations driven by 30'
        Speaker: Silvina Solman de Knees (University of Buenos Aires, Argentina)
        Material: slides
    • 11:30 - 11:45 Development of CWRF for Regional Weather and Climate Prediction: Model Description and Performance over North America
      • 11:30 Development of CWRF for Regional Weather and Climate Prediction: Model Description and Performance over North America 15'
        Speaker: Xin-Zhong Liang (University of Maryland, College Park, USA)
        Material: slides
    • 11:45 - 12:00 Testing Different Convective Schemes in a Regional Climate Model over the Tropical Americas in ERA Interim CORDEX Simulations
      • 11:45 Testing Different Convective Schemes in a Regional Climate Model over the Tropical Americas in ERA Interim CORDEX Simulations 15'
        Speaker: Alexandre Costa (University Estadual doCeara, Fortaleza, Brazil)
    • 12:00 - 12:15 Comparative analysis of regional simulations over South America: RegCM3 versus RegCM4
      • 12:00 Comparative analysis of regional simulations over South America: RegCM3 versus RegCM4 15'
        Speaker: Rosmeri Porfirio da Rocha (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil)
        Material: slides
    • 12:15 - 14:00 Lunch Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Cafeteria
      • 12:15 Lunch Break 1h45'
    • 14:00 - 14:30 Lessons Learned from the Regional Climate Study over Korea
      • 14:00 Lessons Learned from the Regional Climate Study over Korea 30'
        Speaker: Won-Tae Kwon (KMA, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
    • 14:30 - 14:45 Climate information services of APEC Climate Center (APCC)
      • 14:30 Climate information services of APEC Climate Center (APCC) 15'
        Speaker: Jin Ho Yoo (APEC Climate Center (APCC), Busan, Republic of Korea)
        Material: slides
    • 14:45 - 15:00 Evaluation of CORDEX experiment for East Asia with HadGEM3-RA
      • 14:45 Evaluation of CORDEX experiment for East Asia with HadGEM3-RA 15'
        Speaker: Suhee Park (KMA, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
        Material: slides
    • 15:00 - 15:15 Multi-RCM simulations and bias assessment for CORDEX-East Asia Domain
      • 15:00 Multi-RCM simulations and bias assessment for CORDEX-East Asia Domain 15'
        Speaker: Hyun-Suk Kang (KMA, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
        Material: slides
    • 15:30 - 16:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 15:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 16:00 - 16:15 RegCM4.0 Experiments for CORDEX REGION 8
      • 16:00 RegCM4.0 Experiments for CORDEX REGION 8 15'
        Speaker: Levent Kurnaz (Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey)
        Material: slides
    • 16:15 - 16:30 Regional Climate Downscaling for Middle East, Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula
      • 16:15 Regional Climate Downscaling for Middle East, Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula 15'
        Speaker: Georgiy Stenchikov (KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia)
        Material: slides
    • 16:30 - 17:00 Use of high-resolution modelling techniques in climate change impact assessment in the Australian region: recent examples and some issues
      • 16:30 Use of high-resolution modelling techniques in climate change impact assessment in the Australian region: recent examples and some issues 30'
        Speaker: Penny Whetton (CSIRO, Aspendale, Australia)
        Material: slides
    • 17:00 - 18:30 parallel: TFRCD Meeting
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Oppenheimer Meeting Room
      • 17:00 parallel: TFRCD Meeting 1h30'
        Speaker: special group
    • 17:00 - 18:30 parallel: CORDEX GENERAL POSTER SESSION
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 17:00 parallel: CORDEX GENERAL POSTER SESSION 1h30'
        Speaker: participants
  • Thursday, 24 March 2011
    • 09:00 - 09:30 First results from the Africa-CORDEX ensemble driven by ERA-interim
      • 09:00 First results from the Africa-CORDEX ensemble driven by ERA-interim 30'
        Speaker: Colin Jones (SMHI Rossby Center, Norrköping, Sweden)
        Material: slides
    • 09:30 - 09:45 The CORDEX-Africa initiative: How RCMs simulate African climate ?
      • 09:30 The CORDEX-Africa initiative: How RCMs simulate African climate ? 15'
        Speaker: Grigory Nikulin (SMHI Rossby Center, Norrköping, Sweden)
        Material: slides
    • 09:45 - 10:00 Diagnostic of monthly precipitation from CORDEX simulations over Africa : focus on the annual cycles
      • 09:45 Diagnostic of monthly precipitation from CORDEX simulations over Africa : focus on the annual cycles 15'
        Speaker: Alice Favre (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
        Material: slides
    • 10:00 - 10:15 Predicting Future Climate Changes in West Africa: Role of Land Dynamics
      • 10:00 Predicting Future Climate Changes in West Africa: Role of Land Dynamics 15'
        Speaker: Guilang Wang (University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA)
        Material: slides
    • 10:15 - 10:30 On the radiation budget in regional climate simulations for West Africa
      • 10:15 On the radiation budget in regional climate simulations for West Africa 15'
        Speaker: Bodo Ahrens (Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany)
        Material: slides
    • 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 10:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 11:00 - 11:15 Understanding and predicting the contemporary climate of Africa using the HadGEM3RA regional climate modelling system
      • 11:00 Understanding and predicting the contemporary climate of Africa using the HadGEM3RA regional climate modelling system 15'
        Speaker: Wilfran Moufouma-Okia (Met Office Hadley Center, Exeter, UK)
        Material: slides
    • 11:15 - 11:30 Regional Climate Model Simulations of Future Climates of the Greater Horn of Africa
      • 11:15 Regional Climate Model Simulations of Future Climates of the Greater Horn of Africa 15'
        Speaker: Philip Omondi Aming\'o (ICPAC, Nairobi, Kenya)
        Material: slides
    • 11:30 - 11:45 The impacts of seasonal variation in vegetation over Africa
      • 11:30 The impacts of seasonal variation in vegetation over Africa 15'
        Speaker: Ruth Cerezo-Mota (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
    • 11:45 - 12:00 CORDEX Africa simulations with convective parameterization tests, RegCM3 vs. RegCM4 comparison
      • 11:45 CORDEX Africa simulations with convective parameterization tests, RegCM3 vs. RegCM4 comparison 15'
        Speaker: Tomas Halenka (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
        Material: slides
    • 12:00 - 12:15 Comparison of responses to soil moisture perturbations for different land surface schemes within RegCM4 over southern Africa
      • 12:00 Comparison of responses to soil moisture perturbations for different land surface schemes within RegCM4 over southern Africa 15'
        Speaker: Marshall Lison Mdoka (School of Arts, Johannesburg, South Africa)
        Material: slides
    • 12:15 - 14:00 Lunch Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Cafeteria
      • 12:15 Lunch Break 1h45'
    • 14:00 - 14:30 Climate change signals in Africa from RCMs
      • 14:00 Climate change signals in Africa from RCMs 30'
        Speaker: Heiko Paeth (University of Würzburg, Germany)
        Material: slides
    • 14:30 - 14:45 Can regional climate models inter-comparison improve our understanding of the West African monsoon dynamics ?
      • 14:30 Can regional climate models inter-comparison improve our understanding of the West African monsoon dynamics ? 15'
        Speaker: Bamba Sylla (ICTP, Trieste, Italy)
        Material: slides
    • 14:45 - 15:00 Validation of CRCM5 simulations over Africa
      • 14:45 Validation of CRCM5 simulations over Africa 15'
        Speaker: Katja Winger (University of Québec, Montreal, Canada)
        Material: slides
    • 15:00 - 15:15 Predictability of seasonal Sahel rainfall beyond the spring barrier using GCM MOS correction
      • 15:00 Predictability of seasonal Sahel rainfall beyond the spring barrier using GCM MOS correction 15'
        Speaker: Ousmane Ndaye (ANAMS, Dakar, Senegal)
        Material: slides
    • 15:15 - 15:30 High-resolution projections of climate change over Africa using a variable-resolution global atmospheric model
      • 15:15 High-resolution projections of climate change over Africa using a variable-resolution global atmospheric model 15'
        Speaker: Francois Engelbrecht (CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa)
    • 15:30 - 16:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building, Lobby
      • 15:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 16:00 - 17:45 Wrap up Discussion / Perspective Session
      • 16:00 Wrap up Discussion / Perspective Session 1h45'
        Speaker: Colin Jones (SMHI Rossby Center, Norrköping, Sweden)
        Material: slides
  • Friday, 25 March 2011
    • 09:00 - 10:30 Introduction to CORDEX Africa / Introduction to downscaling and modeling
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 09:00 Introduction to CORDEX Africa / Introduction to downscaling and modeling 1h30'
        Speaker: F. Giorgi, C. Jones, B. Hewitson, R. Cerezo-Mota, C. Lennard (ICTP, SMHI, UCT)
    • 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria
      • 10:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 11:00 - 13:00 Introduction to R (R Session 1) / The datasets (R Session 2)
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 11:00 Introduction to R (R Session 1) / The datasets (R Session 2) 2h0'
        Speaker: Alice Favre (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
    • 13:00 - 14:00 Lunch Break
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria
      • 13:00 Lunch Break 1h0'
    • 14:00 - 15:00 Introduction to data analysis
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 14:00 Introduction to data analysis 1h0'
        Speaker: B. Hewitson, R. Cerezo-Mota, C. Lennard (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
    • 15:00 - 16:00 RCM outputs versus observation - part 1 (R Session 3)
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 15:00 RCM outputs versus observation - part 1 (R Session 3) 1h0'
        Speaker: Alice Favre (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
    • 16:00 - 16:30 Coffee Break
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria
      • 16:00 Coffee Break 30'
    • 16:30 - 18:00 RCM outputs versus observation - part 2 (R Session 4)
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 16:30 RCM outputs versus observation - part 2 (R Session 4) 1h30'
        Speaker: Alice Favre (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Saturday, 26 March 2011
    • 09:00 - 10:30 Question and Answer Session / Considering multiple lines of evidence and ensemble data
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 09:00 Question and Answer Session / Considering multiple lines of evidence and ensemble data 1h30'
        Speaker: Group / Bruce Hewitson (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
    • 10:30 - 11:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria
      • 10:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 11:00 - 13:00 Using satellite data to test model results
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 11:00 Using satellite data to test model results 2h0'
        Speaker: Duane Waliser (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)
    • 13:00 - 14:00 Lunch Break
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria
      • 13:00 Lunch Break 1h0'
    • 14:00 - 15:30 RCM outputs versus observation - part 3 (R Session 5)
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 14:00 RCM outputs versus observation - part 3 (R Session 5) 1h30'
        Speaker: Alice Favre (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
    • 15:30 - 16:00 Coffee Break
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria
      • 15:30 Coffee Break 30'
    • 16:00 - 18:00 PRESENTATIONS
      Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab.
      • 16:00 PRESENTATIONS 2h0'
        Speaker: GROUP