Material
Advanced School on Scaling Laws in Geophysics: Mechanical and Thermal Processes in Geodynamics  (smr 2240)
Go to day


09:00  10:00
Derivation of GPE. 2D stress balance for different crustal structure/boundary conditions

09:00
Derivation of GPE. 2D stress balance for different crustal structure/boundary conditions
1h0'
Speaker: P. Molnar (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Derivation of GPE. 2D stress balance for different crustal structure/boundary conditions
1h0'

10:00  10:30
Coffee break
 10:00 Coffee break 30'

10:30  12:00
Derivation of thin viscous sheet equations

10:30
Derivation of thin viscous sheet equations
1h30'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK) Material: lecture notes

10:30
Derivation of thin viscous sheet equations
1h30'

12:00  12:30
Scaling of stress differences to elevations (in isostasy), and simple problems illustrating force per unit length

12:00
Scaling of stress differences to elevations (in isostasy), and simple problems illustrating force per unit length
30'
Speaker: G. Houseman, P. Molnar (Univ. of Leeds, UK, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

12:00
Scaling of stress differences to elevations (in isostasy), and simple problems illustrating force per unit length
30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  16:00
Diagnostics of thin sheet deformation: matching gradients in strainrates to gradients in GPE, and faulting response.
Case studies: Tibet, Aegean and Indian Ocean.

14:00
Diagnostics of thin sheet deformation: matching gradients in strainrates to gradients in GPE, and faulting response.
Case studies: Tibet, Aegean and Indian Ocean.
2h0'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK) Material: lecture notes

14:00
Diagnostics of thin sheet deformation: matching gradients in strainrates to gradients in GPE, and faulting response.
Case studies: Tibet, Aegean and Indian Ocean.
2h0'

16:00  16:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  16:00 Coffee Break 30'

16:30  17:30
Scaling of areal extent of deformation to dimensions of boundaries and to n (England, Houseman, and Sonder, 1985), plus dependence on Ar.
Exercises on simple boundarydriven deformation problems using basic solutions. Dependence on the Argand number, Ar, and the exponent n.

16:30
Scaling of areal extent of deformation to dimensions of boundaries and to n (England, Houseman, and Sonder, 1985), plus dependence on Ar.
Exercises on simple boundarydriven deformation problems using basic solutions. Dependence on the Argand number, Ar, and the exponent n.
1h0'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK) Material: Exercise

16:30
Scaling of areal extent of deformation to dimensions of boundaries and to n (England, Houseman, and Sonder, 1985), plus dependence on Ar.
Exercises on simple boundarydriven deformation problems using basic solutions. Dependence on the Argand number, Ar, and the exponent n.
1h0'

09:00  10:00
Derivation of GPE. 2D stress balance for different crustal structure/boundary conditions


09:00  10:30
Derivation of basic equation for growth rate. Example of instability

09:00
Derivation of basic equation for growth rate. Example of instability
1h30'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Derivation of basic equation for growth rate. Example of instability
1h30'

10:30  11:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  10:30 Coffee Break 30'

11:00  12:00
Growth rate as a function of wavenumber, dependence on boundary conditions, eigenfunctions

11:00
Growth rate as a function of wavenumber, dependence on boundary conditions, eigenfunctions
1h0'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK)

11:00
Growth rate as a function of wavenumber, dependence on boundary conditions, eigenfunctions
1h0'

12:00  12:30
Examples using Houseman s code sybil to examine exponential form of blobs and thinning using runs already carried out.
Derive the growth rate for a simple case. (For instance, 2 halfspaces with constant, different density, and exponentially decreasing viscosity),
Scaling of growth rate to various parameters (density, g, thickness, and viscosity).

12:00
Examples using Houseman s code sybil to examine exponential form of blobs and thinning using runs already carried out.
Derive the growth rate for a simple case. (For instance, 2 halfspaces with constant, different density, and exponentially decreasing viscosity),
Scaling of growth rate to various parameters (density, g, thickness, and viscosity).
30'

12:00
Examples using Houseman s code sybil to examine exponential form of blobs and thinning using runs already carried out.
Derive the growth rate for a simple case. (For instance, 2 halfspaces with constant, different density, and exponentially decreasing viscosity),
Scaling of growth rate to various parameters (density, g, thickness, and viscosity).
30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  14:30
RayleighTaylor instability, effects of nonNewtonian viscosity.
Derivation of the dependence of growth rate on n.

14:00
RayleighTaylor instability, effects of nonNewtonian viscosity.
Derivation of the dependence of growth rate on n.
30'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK) Material: Exercise

14:00
RayleighTaylor instability, effects of nonNewtonian viscosity.
Derivation of the dependence of growth rate on n.
30'

14:30  15:30
Examples using sybil to examine the time dependence of growth: exponential for n = 1, and superexponential with n > 1
Scaling of growth rate to n.

14:30
Examples using sybil to examine the time dependence of growth: exponential for n = 1, and superexponential with n > 1
Scaling of growth rate to n.
1h0'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK)

14:30
Examples using sybil to examine the time dependence of growth: exponential for n = 1, and superexponential with n > 1
Scaling of growth rate to n.
1h0'

15:30  16:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  15:30 Coffee Break 30'

16:30  17:30
ICTP COLLOQUIUM:
Mantle dynamics and the rise and fall of mountain belts
Location: Leonardo da Vinci Building Main Lecture Hall 
16:30
ICTP COLLOQUIUM:
Mantle dynamics and the rise and fall of mountain belts
1h0'
Speaker: P. Molnar (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA)

16:30
ICTP COLLOQUIUM:
Mantle dynamics and the rise and fall of mountain belts
1h0'

09:00  10:30
Derivation of basic equation for growth rate. Example of instability


09:00  10:00
Stokes flow and dynamic topography
Stokes problem of a sinking sphere

09:00
Stokes flow and dynamic topography
Stokes problem of a sinking sphere
1h0'
Speaker: P. Molnar (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Stokes flow and dynamic topography
Stokes problem of a sinking sphere
1h0'

10:00  10:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  10:00 Coffee Break 30'

10:30  11:30
Deflection of the surface above a sinking sphere and associated gravity anomalies and geoid. [Morgan, 1965]

10:30
Deflection of the surface above a sinking sphere and associated gravity anomalies and geoid. [Morgan, 1965]
1h0'
Speaker: P. Molnar (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

10:30
Deflection of the surface above a sinking sphere and associated gravity anomalies and geoid. [Morgan, 1965]
1h0'

11:30  12:30
Basil/sybil exercise with a sinking sphere or cylinder

11:30
Basil/sybil exercise with a sinking sphere or cylinder
1h0'
Speaker: G. Houseman (Univ. of Leeds, UK) Material: Exercise

11:30
Basil/sybil exercise with a sinking sphere or cylinder
1h0'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  15:00
Derivation of the basic heat transfer equation and heating or cooling by diffusion

14:00
Derivation of the basic heat transfer equation and heating or cooling by diffusion
1h0'
Speaker: M. Manga (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA) Material: lecture notes

14:00
Derivation of the basic heat transfer equation and heating or cooling by diffusion
1h0'

15:00  15:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  15:00 Coffee Break 30'

15:30  16:30
Examples of a cooling lithosphere: both cooling plate and cooling halfspace, comparison of different boundary conditions (fixed temperature and fixed heat flux).

15:30
Examples of a cooling lithosphere: both cooling plate and cooling halfspace, comparison of different boundary conditions (fixed temperature and fixed heat flux).
1h0'
Speaker: M. Manga (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA) Material: lecture notes

15:30
Examples of a cooling lithosphere: both cooling plate and cooling halfspace, comparison of different boundary conditions (fixed temperature and fixed heat flux).
1h0'

16:30  17:00
Solidification
Scaling of time and depth in thermal diffusion

16:30
Solidification
Scaling of time and depth in thermal diffusion
30'
Speaker: M. Manga (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA)

16:30
Solidification
Scaling of time and depth in thermal diffusion
30'

17:00  17:30
Molnar and England’s S in thrust faulting

17:00
Molnar and England’s S in thrust faulting
30'
Speaker: P. Molnar (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

17:00
Molnar and England’s S in thrust faulting
30'

09:00  10:00
Stokes flow and dynamic topography
Stokes problem of a sinking sphere


09:00  10:00
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number

09:00
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number
1h0'
Speaker: J. Niemala (ICTP, Trieste)

09:00
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number
1h0'

10:00  10:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  10:00 Coffee Break 30'

10:30  12:30
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number

10:30
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number
2h0'
Speaker: J. Niemala (ICTP, Trieste)

10:30
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number
2h0'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  16:00
Mixing and Volcanos

14:00
Mixing and Volcanos
2h0'
Speaker: M. Manga (Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA) Material: lecture notes

14:00
Mixing and Volcanos
2h0'

16:00  16:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  16:00 Coffee Break 30'

16:30  18:30
Visit to Laboratory

16:30
Visit to Laboratory
2h0'

16:30
Visit to Laboratory
2h0'

09:00  10:00
Turbulence, planform of convection, boundary layer and plumes at high Rayleigh number


09:00  10:30
Introduction of energy equation.
Boussinesq approximation.

09:00
Introduction of energy equation.
Boussinesq approximation.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Introduction of energy equation.
Boussinesq approximation.
1h30'

10:30  11:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  10:30 Coffee Break 30'

11:00  12:30
Plumes and thermals. Use these to derive scaling relations for velocity as a function of power input and to discuss dynamical regimes (laminar vs. turbulent). Use plumes to illustrate Prandtl number, diffusion of heat and momentum and boundary layer structure.
(Application of simple convection code)

11:00
Plumes and thermals. Use these to derive scaling relations for velocity as a function of power input and to discuss dynamical regimes (laminar vs. turbulent). Use plumes to illustrate Prandtl number, diffusion of heat and momentum and boundary layer structure.
(Application of simple convection code)
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

11:00
Plumes and thermals. Use these to derive scaling relations for velocity as a function of power input and to discuss dynamical regimes (laminar vs. turbulent). Use plumes to illustrate Prandtl number, diffusion of heat and momentum and boundary layer structure.
(Application of simple convection code)
1h30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  15:30
RayleighBénard convection (no internal heating). Heuristic argument to introduce Rayleigh number.
Dimensional analysis. Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Reynolds number for convective flow.

14:00
RayleighBénard convection (no internal heating). Heuristic argument to introduce Rayleigh number.
Dimensional analysis. Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Reynolds number for convective flow.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

14:00
RayleighBénard convection (no internal heating). Heuristic argument to introduce Rayleigh number.
Dimensional analysis. Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Reynolds number for convective flow.
1h30'

15:30  16:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  15:30 Coffee Break 30'

16:00  17:30
Examples of convective systems: mantle, magma reservoirs.
Marginal stability: Influence of boundary conditions (Free boundaries, rigid boundaries, fixed temperature, fixed heat flux).

16:00
Examples of convective systems: mantle, magma reservoirs.
Marginal stability: Influence of boundary conditions (Free boundaries, rigid boundaries, fixed temperature, fixed heat flux).
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France)

16:00
Examples of convective systems: mantle, magma reservoirs.
Marginal stability: Influence of boundary conditions (Free boundaries, rigid boundaries, fixed temperature, fixed heat flux).
1h30'

09:00  10:30
Introduction of energy equation.
Boussinesq approximation.


09:00  10:00
MAGMATIC SYSTEMS: MECHANICS.
Derivation of conservation of mass & momentum equations.
Scaling and the compaction length.
Magma wave solutions.

09:00
MAGMATIC SYSTEMS: MECHANICS.
Derivation of conservation of mass & momentum equations.
Scaling and the compaction length.
Magma wave solutions.
1h0'
Speaker: R. Katz (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Material: lecture notes

09:00
MAGMATIC SYSTEMS: MECHANICS.
Derivation of conservation of mass & momentum equations.
Scaling and the compaction length.
Magma wave solutions.
1h0'

10:00  10:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Lower Level 1)  10:00 Coffee Break 30'

10:30  12:00
Latent heat of crystallization and melting. Stefan number.
Diffusive cooling: pure substance.
Mushy layers: observations (lava lakes).
Mushy layers: models.

10:30
Latent heat of crystallization and melting. Stefan number.
Diffusive cooling: pure substance.
Mushy layers: observations (lava lakes).
Mushy layers: models.
1h30'
Speaker: R. Katz (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Material: lecture notes

10:30
Latent heat of crystallization and melting. Stefan number.
Diffusive cooling: pure substance.
Mushy layers: observations (lava lakes).
Mushy layers: models.
1h30'

12:00  12:30
Convection and crystallization in magma reservoirs: thermal and compositional.

12:00
Convection and crystallization in magma reservoirs: thermal and compositional.
30'
Speaker: R. Katz (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Material: lecture notes

12:00
Convection and crystallization in magma reservoirs: thermal and compositional.
30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  15:30
Equation for the horizontally averaged temperature and the convective heat flux Thermal structure of fluid layer: boundary layers and wellmixed interior.

14:00
Equation for the horizontally averaged temperature and the convective heat flux Thermal structure of fluid layer: boundary layers and wellmixed interior.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

14:00
Equation for the horizontally averaged temperature and the convective heat flux Thermal structure of fluid layer: boundary layers and wellmixed interior.
1h30'

15:30  16:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Lower Level 1)  15:30 Coffee Break 30'

16:00  17:00
Free boundaries versus rigid boundaries.
Large Prandtl number fluids. Convective loop model. Scaling relations for velocity and heat flux (no internal heating).

16:00
Free boundaries versus rigid boundaries.
Large Prandtl number fluids. Convective loop model. Scaling relations for velocity and heat flux (no internal heating).
1h0'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

16:00
Free boundaries versus rigid boundaries.
Large Prandtl number fluids. Convective loop model. Scaling relations for velocity and heat flux (no internal heating).
1h0'

17:00  17:30
Convection driven by density anomalies in the Earth s mantle. Dynamic topography.

17:00
Convection driven by density anomalies in the Earth s mantle. Dynamic topography.
30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart, S. Zhong (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

17:00
Convection driven by density anomalies in the Earth s mantle. Dynamic topography.
30'

09:00  10:00
MAGMATIC SYSTEMS: MECHANICS.
Derivation of conservation of mass & momentum equations.
Scaling and the compaction length.
Magma wave solutions.


09:00  10:00
Thermodynamics & chemistry.

09:00
Thermodynamics & chemistry.
1h0'
Speaker: R. Katz (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Thermodynamics & chemistry.
1h0'

10:00  10:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Lower Level 1)  10:00 Coffee Break 30'

10:30  12:00
Equilibrium & disequilibrium formulations.
Melting column solutions.

10:30
Equilibrium & disequilibrium formulations.
Melting column solutions.
1h30'
Speaker: R. Katz (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Material: lecture notes

10:30
Equilibrium & disequilibrium formulations.
Melting column solutions.
1h30'

12:00  12:30
Instabilities & the tectonic context. Mechanical and reactive melting instabilities. Magmagenesis and focussing at midocean ridges

12:00
Instabilities & the tectonic context. Mechanical and reactive melting instabilities. Magmagenesis and focussing at midocean ridges
30'
Speaker: R. Katz (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Material: Exercise

12:00
Instabilities & the tectonic context. Mechanical and reactive melting instabilities. Magmagenesis and focussing at midocean ridges
30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  15:00
Scaling for internally heated fluids. Thermal structure of fluid layer

14:00
Scaling for internally heated fluids. Thermal structure of fluid layer
1h0'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

14:00
Scaling for internally heated fluids. Thermal structure of fluid layer
1h0'

15:00  15:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Lower Level 1)  15:00 Coffee Break 30'

15:30  16:30
Dissipation equation. New derivation of Nusselt number vs. Rayleigh number relationship

15:30
Dissipation equation. New derivation of Nusselt number vs. Rayleigh number relationship
1h0'
Speaker: S. Zhong (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

15:30
Dissipation equation. New derivation of Nusselt number vs. Rayleigh number relationship
1h0'

16:30  17:00
Characteristics of plumes in RayleighBénard convection at high Ra

16:30
Characteristics of plumes in RayleighBénard convection at high Ra
30'
Speaker: S. Zhong (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

16:30
Characteristics of plumes in RayleighBénard convection at high Ra
30'

09:00  10:00
Thermodynamics & chemistry.


09:00  10:00
Temperaturedependent viscosity.
Scaling for velocity and heat flux.

09:00
Temperaturedependent viscosity.
Scaling for velocity and heat flux.
1h0'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Temperaturedependent viscosity.
Scaling for velocity and heat flux.
1h0'

10:00  10:30
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  10:00 Coffee Break 30'

10:30  12:00
NonNewtonian rheology.
NonNewtonian with temperaturedependent rheology.
Scaling for velocity, heat flux, stress and strainrate.

10:30
NonNewtonian rheology.
NonNewtonian with temperaturedependent rheology.
Scaling for velocity, heat flux, stress and strainrate.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

10:30
NonNewtonian rheology.
NonNewtonian with temperaturedependent rheology.
Scaling for velocity, heat flux, stress and strainrate.
1h30'

12:00  12:30
Smallscale convection beneath oceanic and continental lithosphere

12:00
Smallscale convection beneath oceanic and continental lithosphere
30'
Speaker: S. Zhong (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

12:00
Smallscale convection beneath oceanic and continental lithosphere
30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  15:30
Practicals and exercises: problem sets + a few computer runs.
Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab. 
14:00
Practicals and exercises: problem sets + a few computer runs.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart, S. Zhong (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA)

14:00
Practicals and exercises: problem sets + a few computer runs.
1h30'

15:30  16:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  15:30 Coffee Break 30'

16:00  17:30
Practicals and exercises: problem sets + a few computer runs.
Location: Adriatico Guest House Informatics Lab. 
16:00
Practicals and exercises: problem sets + a few computer runs.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart, S. Zhong (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA)

16:00
Practicals and exercises: problem sets + a few computer runs.
1h30'

09:00  10:00
Temperaturedependent viscosity.
Scaling for velocity and heat flux.


09:00  10:30
Chemical differences.
Buoyancy number:
Marginal stability, dependence on Rayleigh number and Buoyancy number.

09:00
Chemical differences.
Buoyancy number:
Marginal stability, dependence on Rayleigh number and Buoyancy number.
1h30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart, P. Molnar (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

09:00
Chemical differences.
Buoyancy number:
Marginal stability, dependence on Rayleigh number and Buoyancy number.
1h30'

10:30  11:00
Coffee Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  10:30 Coffee Break 30'

11:00  12:00
Twolayer mantle: convection regimes, thermal structure.

11:00
Twolayer mantle: convection regimes, thermal structure.
1h0'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

11:00
Twolayer mantle: convection regimes, thermal structure.
1h0'

12:00  12:30
Evolution of initially stratified fluid

12:00
Evolution of initially stratified fluid
30'
Speaker: C. Jaupart (Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) Material: lecture notes

12:00
Evolution of initially stratified fluid
30'

12:30  14:00
Lunch Break
Location: Adriatico Guest House Cafeteria  12:30 Lunch Break 1h30'

14:00  15:00
DEEP CONVECTION:
Pressuredependence of density: nonBoussinesq flow.
Dissipation number, temperature scale height
Isentropes and adiabats.
Energy balance and scaling of dissipation with Rayleigh number.

14:00
DEEP CONVECTION:
Pressuredependence of density: nonBoussinesq flow.
Dissipation number, temperature scale height
Isentropes and adiabats.
Energy balance and scaling of dissipation with Rayleigh number.
1h0'
Speaker: S. Zhong (Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, USA) Material: lecture notes

14:00
DEEP CONVECTION:
Pressuredependence of density: nonBoussinesq flow.
Dissipation number, temperature scale height
Isentropes and adiabats.
Energy balance and scaling of dissipation with Rayleigh number.
1h0'

15:00  15:30
Coffee break
Location: Adriatico Guest House (Terrace)  15:00 Coffee break 30'

15:30  17:00
OPEN DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

15:30
OPEN DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
1h30'

15:30
OPEN DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
1h30'

09:00  10:30
Chemical differences.
Buoyancy number:
Marginal stability, dependence on Rayleigh number and Buoyancy number.