Abstract. Not every effective theory of fields and gravitational interactions at low energy can be embedded into a consistent theory of gravity at short distances. I will discuss how fundamental properties of scattering amplitudes, such as unitarity and causality of the underlying fundamental theory, can be used to spot inconsistent theories of gravity at low-energy, and hence throw them in the so-called EFT "swampland". I will focus on three main applications: the weak gravity conjecture for the physics of extremal black holes; and modified gravity theories such as Galileons and massive gravity, of interest for late-time cosmology.
ICTP - Strada Costiera, 11
I - 34151 Trieste Italy (+39) 040 2240 111 email@example.com